Africa News: Horn and East Africa Drought

East and Horn of Africa Drought


Mogadishu: the children caught between fighting and famine

Kenya cabinet authorises $100 mln to fight drought

Droughts in East Africa – A Reminder On the Devastating Effects of Climate Change in Africa (French)

OCHA  Report Eastern Africa• Drought-Humanitarian Report -No. 3- 10 June 2011 (New Report Expected today- 15/07/2011 and will be uploaded as and when)

Food Security & Nutrition Working Group
Central and Eastern Africa

This report is produced by OCHA in collaboration with humanitarian partners. It was issued by the
Sub-Regional Office for Eastern Africa (SROEA), Nairobi. It covers the period 01-31 May 2011.
The next report will be issued on or around 15 July 2011.


. 2011 is the driest period in the Eastern Horn of Africa since 1995: drought remains a major threat
with no likelihood of improvement until early 2012.1
The number of people in acute livelihood crisis expected to increase from 8.8 million in the coming
Although Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia saw the late arrival of the long pastoral rains (March-May),
amounts received were low and insufficient to sustain human and livestock water consumption and
regenerate pasture until the next rainy season (expected in October): river levels in Somalia said to
be at historic minimums, while water and cereal prices registered highest increases in 12 months.
Overall food security conditions across pastoral and marginal agricultural areas will continue to
deteriorate in the coming 3 to 4 months, with expectation of late and below-average summer
harvests, early depletion of pasture and water, and continued high prices of food, water and fuel.
Kenya has declared the drought a national disaster: inflation in Kenya is at 14% – highest in two
years – and expected to increase further.
Funding gaps have been reported in all major sectors, particularly in Nutrition, WASH and
Livelihoods; humanitarian country teams are revising their response plans and funding requirements
to account for the deteriorating situation.
La Niña conditions have begun to dissipate, increasing the likelihood of normal to above-normal
rainfall in areas that receive rains during the June to September period; in Ethiopia, flash floods have
already been reported in pocket areas, while in Uganda, more landslides are feared in Bugisu sub-
region, although Karamoja is expected to see below-normal rains through June.
II. Regional Situation Overview

 According to FEWS-NET, the pastoral and cropping
areas of Eastern Africa experienced poor March to
May rains resulting in scarce pasture and increased
water shortages. Most pastoral districts in northern
Kenya and southern Ethiopia received between 5 and
50% of their March to June seasonal averages.
Similarly, the short-cycle (belg) cropping areas of
Ethiopia, agro pastoral areas of northern Tanzania,
parts of southern Somalia and northwestern Kenya
(eastern Turkana districts) received below average
rainfall. Food insecurity in these areas is growing as
the rains are insufficient to adequately recharge water
pans and to sustain the population and livestock until
the next rainy season expected in October.2

2 USAID/FEWSNET, “East Africa Food Security Alert,” June 7, 2011

An estimated 8.8 million people, continue to require
urgent humanitarian assistance (in acute food and
livelihood crisis or humanitarian emergency-IPC phase 3 and 4) and FAO warns of a likelihood of
deteriorating food security situation inning June/July, as the recent rains – especially in pastoral areas
previously affected by the drought – have had little impact in alleviating heightened food insecurity.
Terms of trade for pastoralists in the Greater Mandera Triangle have reduced to 80% below average as
livestock conditions and production deteriorate, according to the FSNWG. Inflation rates across the
region are on the increase, with Kenya recording a 14% increase, said to be highest in two years.3

3 Food Security and Nutrition Working Group (FSNWG), “Regional Food Security Situation and Outlook,
Central and Eastern Africa”, May 2011

4 OCHA Somalia, “Weekly Humanitarian Bulletin,” Issue No. 21, 20-27 May 2011

5 Save the Children-UK, “Drought Assessment Report- Northern Eastern Kenya (Wajir East, South and
Mandera),” April 2011

6 OCHA Kenya, “Kenya Humanitarian Update”, Vol. 71, 23 April-30 May 2011

7 USAID/FEWSNET, “East Africa Regional Rain Watch”, June 2, 2011- GFS 7-day Rainfall forecast (mm):
June 1-7, 2011

 Malnutrition rates in most Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) are reportedly higher than in previous
years, with deteriorating conditions, including in Puntland. A nutrition survey conducted by the Food
Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU) in Mogadishu in April shows Global Acute
Malnutrition (GAM) rates of 15.2 per cent.4 Preliminary findings from a nutrition survey by Save the
Children-UK in Kenya observed unreasonably high malnutrition rates of more than 20% in Marsabit
and 25% in Mandera Central5, above the WHO emergency threshold of 15%.

 The worsening drought continues to drive further outbreaks of contagious livestock diseases. As
reported by OCHA Uganda, although contained, there has been limited intervention against the
outbreak of the Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in northern Uganda. Only 6% of the estimated 90,000
cattle in Kaabong have been vaccinated against the disease. The FMD outbreak has been accelerated
by increased cross-border population migrations in the region, with Amudat district tracing its
outbreak to the Pokot pastoralists from Kenya, while the outbreak in Abim district reportedly
originated from Acholi sub-region. The quarantine imposed in these areas is likely to be lifted in June
if no new cases are reported.

Pastoral migrations back to areas that received relatively more rain were observed temporarily in
Somalia, northeastern Kenya and several parts of northern Uganda due to pasture regeneration and
water recharge in most parts. This resulted in livestock concentration over feeding points and, in some
cases, conflict over scarce resources. An OCHA Kenya analysis in pastoralist areas points to more
deaths due to conflict over resources recorded this year compared to the same time last year. More
than 112 people have died during conflict between January and May 2011 compared to 68 people
during the same period in 2010.6 Other conflict hot-spots for Kenya include the areas along the
Kenya-Ethiopia and Uganda-Kenya borders.

The rate of school dropouts as a result of drought-related conditions is increasing. In Karamoja, a 30%
school drop rate has been recorded following pipeline breaks in WFP’s Food for Education
programme, which forms the main supplementary reserve for households. OCHA observes that given
the reduced food reserves at household levels, the rate of school dropouts is likely to increase. The
Save the Children-UK study conducted in May indicates that school attendance in has dropped from
55% to 46% in Mandera, as families continue to migrate long distances in search of water and pasture.
In Ethiopia more than 280 schools, affecting at least 58,000 students in Somali and Oromia regions,
remain closed as a result of the drought.

 The Global Forecast System (GFS) predicts continued moderate to heavy rains across western and
central Kenya, eastern and northern Uganda and western Ethiopia, in June. 7 The East African coastal
strip and southern parts of northern Somalia are also likely to receive moderate rains during this
period. Light or no rains are forecast for much of the areas of concern in the key pastoral areas over
Somalia and Kenya. Flash floods have already been reported in some pocket areas of Ethiopia and
there are fears of more landslides around Mt. Elgon area of Uganda as a result of heavy rains in the
area. The rains are expected to subside, especially in Somalia and parts of the Somali region of
Ethiopia, as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is established in the northern sector. This
raises concerns over the prospects of crop failure or reduced crop yields from the first planting season
III. Country Situation Overview


Despite the slow onset of the rains and some localized deficits during the previous months, the overall
rainfall performance across Burundi was near-normal. The sufficient rainfall witnessed in March 2011
enabled the full establishment of season 2011B. According to the Geographic Institute of Burundi
(IGEBU) and as confirmed by FEWSNET, Burundi is expected to have normal to above-normal
rainfall up to July, pointing to normal yield prospects in most areas. Food security conditions in the
cropping areas have already started to improve due to increased access to food, associated with the
early harvests in mid-March. Slightly lower prices have afforded greater access to the market and
some staple food prices have decreased by four percent between January and April, though they
remain 27 percent higher than the five-year average.8

8 USAID/FEWSNET, “Burundi Special Report “, May 9 2011

9 Burundi Food Security Monitoring Early Warning System SAP/SSA, Bulletin n°101/March 2011, Avril 2011

10 USAID/FEWSNET, “DJIBOUTI, Food Security Outlook Update”, May 2011

 Concern however persists in the eastern part of the country, where rainfall distribution in some
cropping areas (Kirundo and Cankuzo) has been erratic. Food security conditions in Cankuzo are
currently Stressed (IPC Phase 3) for approximately 12,500 to 15,000 poor households. In addition, the
severe Cassava Mosaic disease and Banana Bacterial Wilt outbreaks have increased the risk of food
insecurity in the area. Banana is the main cash crop during the lean season. A joint government and
I/NGO commission will conduct an extensive study on the prevalence of the disease in June 2011.9

On response in Burundi, WFP is currently distributing food to beneficiaries in affected areas mainly
through general distributions, school canteens, Food for Work, Food for vulnerable groups in
institutions, supplementary feeding for malnourished pregnant and lactating women and under 5-year
children, Food for Refugees and Repatriated people. A monthly average of 270,000 people are
assisted. A cumulative deficit of 3 125 tons for all foods is predicted between July and December
2011, equivalent to around 3.25 million USD.

FAO’s emergency assistance programme for season 2011B has enabled 62 650 households to access
seeds through seed fairs and the provision of agricultural tools and vegetable seeds. Complementing
the support provided by FAO, GTZ assisted 4219 households, while FH (Food for the Hungry)
supported 6000 vulnerable households with the establishment of season 2011B. To avoid distributed
seeds being consumed or sold, 10 440 most vulnerable farmers in Kirundo benefited from a WFP food

UNICEF reports increased admissions to integrated nutritional services in affected areas during the
hunger gap period (between October and April). However, admission trends are comparable to
previous years during the same period and do not depict a worsening trend or nutritional situation.
The community based screening referral system established in many provinces of the North-East and
Central-West region continues to enable early identification and referral of severe cases of


Djibouti is experiencing the fourth consecutive year of drought. FEWSNET observes that no
significant rains were recorded during the current Diraac/Sougoum season (March-June), resulting in
significant water deficits and extremely limited pasture and browse in all pastoral areas. An irregular
movement of livestock and concentrations of the remaining weak herds at permanent water points has
been observed, with fears of a high incidence of waterborne diseases and high livestock mortality.
Two of the country’s livelihood zones (northwest and southeast pastoral livelihood zones) that largely
depend on livestock for income and food are according experiencing a food crisis (IPC Phase 3).10
Livestock mortality of 5% for camels and 25% for goats has been observed in the northwest and
southeast pastoral areas.
Food security in the central pastoral zones is currently stressed (IPC Phase 2), with little or no
improvement expected in the coming months. Cash remittances and slight incomes from livestock
sales and milk production form the main source of funding for this zone. The area is presently
experiencing high livestock mortality, estimated at 20% for cattle, 5% for camels and 20% for goats
as a result of the drought conditions. This has further led to an increase in the staple food prices,
reportedly higher compared to both last year and the five-year average. The lower remittances have
resulted in low incomes for other purchases.

FEWSNET further observes that households in urban areas are also at a crisis level of food insecurity,
largely due to the sustained high staple food (68% above the five-year average) and fuel prices (47%
above the five-year average), in addition to reduced employment opportunities. Water scarcity
remains of concern in the City.

Weather forecasts for the remainder of the Diraac/Sougoum season (March-June), predict drier-than-
normal weather conditions over Djibouti and neighbouring areas. Significant food deficits are
expected between June and at least August. Malnutrition rates among children are expected to
deteriorate in coming months due lack of milk, the main source of food for children under 5 years of
age during this time of year.

Humanitarian actors in Djibouti are constrained in their response as the USD 39 million Drought
Appeal remains underfunded at approximately $9 million as at May 2011. The likelihood of the
failure of the WFP food aid pipeline remains a reality in Djibouti due to a shortage of in-coming


An estimated 3.2 million people are receiving food assistance throughout Ethiopia, an increase of
400,000 from February to April 2011. Of these, more than 2 million people are located in La Niña-
induced drought-affected parts of the southern and southeastern lowlands of the country, including in
Somali Region and lowland areas of Oromia and SNNPR.11

11 OCHA Ethiopia, June 2011: As at time of submission, the results of the most recent assessment were being
compiled and may be released as early as mid-June, with an increase in beneficiaries expected.

In mid-May, the Government of Ethiopia conducted a mid-harvest assessment in areas suffering from
drought, as well as areas experiencing poor performance of the short belg rains (mid-February to
May), in order to update the humanitarian requirements. Preliminary results of the assessment
indicate that the worsening food and nutritional security situation should result in a higher emergency
caseload, in all drought- and poor belg-affected areas, including in Somali, Oromia and SNNPR.

Since the last report, recent rains have brought some relief from severe water shortages to human and
livestock populations in the southern rangelands of the country, with water trucking interventions
scaled-back substantially since mid-May. Between February and early May, up to 1.7 million people
became dependent on water trucking, with all zones of Somali Region, many parts of southern
Oromia and southern SNNPR, and lowland and otherwise water-insecure parts of Afar, Tigray and
Amhara in the north affected. Not all parts of the affected regions have benefitted equally from the
replenishment of water and pasture, however, raising the possibility for renewed migration of people
and their livestock to relatively better off areas. Moreover, as water and pasture will not have been
adequately replenished to see the affected population through the next dry season (June to October),
drought conditions are expected to re-emerge in the coming months and renewed water trucking may
be necessary.

The latest forecast by the Ethiopian National Meteorological Agency (NMA) indicates that normal to
above-normal rainfall is expected across most western and central kiremt-receiving parts of the
country in the upcoming June to September rainy season. However, according to the forecast, high
rainfall variability is to be expected over the drought-affected southern and southeastern regions,
while moderate rains are also forecast over northeastern parts of the country. Early onset and late
cessation of the rains are expected over southwestern and western parts of Ethiopia, while late onset
and early withdrawal of kiremt rains are expected in northeastern parts of the country. Flash floods
have been already been reported in some areas. In reaction to this forecast, the Disaster Risk
Management and Food Security Sector (DRMFSS) has reactivated the Floods Task Force and is
preparing to issue a Flood Alert for parts of the country and to update the Floods Contingency Plan.

Food Security: OCHA Ethiopia reports that relief food distributions by WFP and the NGO
consortium Joint Emergency Operation (JEOP) are ongoing, with four rounds allocated for
distribution in the first six months of the year. Shortfalls in food pipelines have, however, led to
distribution of reduced rations in areas covered jointly by WFP and DRMFSS (except Somali Region)
since the second round.

Agriculture- and livestock-based livelihood support interventions also continue, with more than 20
government, UN and civil society organizations involved in drought mitigation and response.
Interventions include commercial and slaughter destocking, emergency animal health, livestock feed
supplementation and emergency livestock water.

Nutrition: The number of cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and moderate acute malnutrition
(MAM) admitted to Therapeutic Feeding Programmes (TFP) and targeted supplementary feeding
(TSF) programmes respectively, are projected to continue increasing as a result of the deteriorating
food security situation in La Niña-affected belg-receiving areas until at least late August / early
September, when the next harvest can be expected. The Government and health and nutrition partners
have raised concern over the need to improve provision of food distributions and TSF, without which
the number of SAM and MAM cases are likely to reach critical levels associated with readmissions,
morbidity and mortality. Monthly reports on admissions to (TFPs) have increased in most La Niña-
affected areas. In SNNPR, TFP admissions increased by 42% between February and March 2011 and
again by 90% between March and April. In Oromia, TFP admissions increased by 36.5 % between
February and March, while the situation remained relatively stable in April. In Somali, a 4% increase
in TFP admissions was reported from March to April, however, less than half of TFPs reported (48%
reporting rate in April).

WASH: As noted above, the number of people depending on water trucking and related supports to
access water has decreased substantially with the late onset of the gu/ganna (March to May) rains. At
present, water trucking continues in pocket areas where the rains have been insufficient. In Somali
region, the number of trucks operating has reduced from 163 to 4. In SNNPR, water trucking
operations were suspended due to the normal rains received in most parts of the region. In Oromia,
while most areas received good rains in May, 21 water trucks continue to provide services in pockets
of Arsi, West Arsi, Borena and West Harerghe zones. In Afar, 11 water trucks continue operations in
Elidar, Kore, Bidu, Erebti, Yallo and Northern Dupti woredas; however, new requirements for
trucking have significantly reduced with the arrival of the rains. In Amhara, water trucks have been
deployed to East Belessa (North Gonder zone) and Minjar Shenkora (North Shewa zone) by the
Government, with UNICEF support. Meanwhile, UNICEF is processing water trucking and
rehabilitation requests in Quara and West Armacho. Water shortages in Tigray continue in all
previously-affected areas of the region and are being supported by water trucking operations run by
the regional Government with support from UNICEF.

Health: In view of the increased threat of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) due to the ongoing rains,
partners are reviewing their preparedness levels. The national level AWD working group agreed to
strengthen response and preparedness efforts, including provision of refresher trainings on AWD
prevention, case management and control; scaling-up and pre-positioning of water treatment
chemicals and sanitation materials; and stepping-up communication initiatives in high-risk areas.

Some 1.05 million children remain at risk of measles, 362,000 at risk of malaria, 72,400 at risk of
meningitis and almost 14,500 people at risk of acute watery diarrhea (AWD), with increasing reports
of waterborne disease outbreaks – including diarrhoea and an increasing caseload of malaria – coming
in from previously drought-affected areas that have received recent rains. Despite scaling up of case
management, supplementary immunization activities and mass vaccinations, measles outbreaks
continue to occur, leading the health sector to conduct a detailed outbreak investigation in some areas.

Education: Educational attendance continues to be negatively affected by the drought, with a large
number of school drop-outs (at least 58,000) and school closures (more than 280) in Somali and
Oromia regions reported. Efforts continue to ensure that multi-sectoral integrated responses are
developed to minimize drop-outs and school closures due to water shortages, hygiene and sanitation
or health issues exacerbated as a result of the La Niña conditions / drought.


FEWSNET warns that an estimated 2.4 million people already at Stressed and Crisis Levels (IPC
Phases 2 and 3) are likely to experience a continued deterioration of food security.12 This follows poor
or failed 2011 long rains in most parts of the pastoral areas and southeastern and coastal marginal
agricultural areas. Rains received in the south eastern lowlands in late April and early May were
poorly distributed and erratic and although there was slight improvement of pasture and water
availability in some areas, this is not sufficient to last beyond May, as the rainy season is about to end
in these areas. Food security for pastoralists and marginal agricultural farm households are expected
to decline to Emergency (IPC Phase 4) and Crisis Levels (IPC Phase 3) respectively, as a result of
exceptionally high food and non-food prices, limited household food stocks and declining pastoral
terms of trade.

12 USAID/FEWSNET, “Kenya Food Security Outlook Update”, May 2011

13 OCHA Kenya, “Humanitarian Update”, Vol. 71, 23 April-30May 2011

Maize prices in the north and northeast have increased by 60-80%, while livestock prices have
declined by 20-30% especially in Garissa and Wajir districts. Livestock mortalities are on the
increase, ranging from 10-15% in Wajir, Moyale and Marsabit. Affected communities require
immediate food and non-food assistance to mitigate the potential further declines. High levels of acute
malnutrition in pastoral areas underline the need for immediate mitigation actions in the areas. Save
the Children (UK) nutrition surveys conducted in March 2011 indicate that the prevalence of global
acute malnutrition (GAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Marsabit was 22% and 4.1%,
respectively. UNICEF has recorded a 53% and 31% increase in the number of children admitted of
acute severe and moderate malnutrition during the first quarter of 2011.

On 30 May, the Kenya government declared the current drought a national disaster, with the President
directing that immediate interventions be put in pace to cushion affected Kenyans and their livestock.
The government allocated 1 billion Kenya shillings to the Ministry of Livestock of which
Kshs.500million will be used for livestock off-take and the balance to be channeled through the
Agricultural Finance Corporation. In addition, the National Cereal and Produce Board (NCPB) on 27
May 2011 announced that the country should consider importing maize to avert a potential food crisis
as the current maize stocks are said to last only until September 2011. In response the President of
Kenya directed Treasury to prepare instruments of approval to facilitate urgent importation of maize
to boost the stocks at the national Strategic Grain Reserves.13

Key cropping areas in the Western, Nyanza and Rift Valley highlands have experienced above-normal
rains hence anticipated favourable food production likely to mitigate the sharp rise in food prices and
ease the pressure on purchasing capacities, including for urban communities. The rains in these areas
are likely to extend through September.

Competition for scarce resources has further resulted in increased resource-based conflicts, with an
estimated 40 pastoralists from northern Turkana who had migrated to southwestern Ethiopia in search
of grain being killed in one incident that has sparked retaliatory attacks. According to OCHA Kenya,
the number of deaths and casualties arising from resource-based conflicts has more than doubled
during the first quarter of 2011, with more than 112 people killed between January and May 2011,
compared to 68 deaths during the same period in 2010.
Urban households continue to suffer under the impact of escalating food and fuel prices that have
reduced household purchasing powers. OCHA Kenya also reports of increased protection concerns in
drought-affected areas following increased migration of adolescent girls to urban areas in search of
labour, majority of whom end up in high risk coping mechanisms.

Food aid support by WFP and partners, including blanket supplementary feeding programmes are
ongoing in the pastoral districts, although experiencing a major funding shortfall. WFP is only able to
meet the needs of 1.6 million people, while the Government of Kenya is expected to respond to the
remaining 800,000 affected people. In reality, an unclear targeting policy is likely to result in a
significant proportion of the targeted population not being reached.

FAO advises that destocking, animal surveillance and water-trucking activities be considered for
communities in the coastal and south-eastern agricultural marginal lands, to avert further losses of
livestock in the anticipated dry months.


As reported by FSNAU Somalia, moderate to heavy rainfalls precipitated in most parts of Somalia in
the month of May, since the last week of April. However, poor rainfall performance in the mid-Gu
season has affected parts of central and southern Somalia. Light to moderate rains were received in
most parts of Somalia with Gedo, Bay regions and limited areas in the north and central receiving
good rains. Significant pasture regeneration has been reported and river levels (the Juba and Shabelle)
started rising and farmers are already taking advantage to irrigate their crops. Significant livestock
movements were observed towards areas with good rains while food supply at markets declined in the
areas where roads become impassible due to the rains. Livestock deaths, especially of small ruminants
as a result of hypothermia have been reported in pastoralist areas.

According to UNHCR, the number of people displaced by the drought in Somalia is estimated at
55,000 since 1 December 2010. Many have fled to Mogadishu, where fighting has put civilian lives at

The food security situation in Somalia has deteriorated substantially. The nutrition situation is
currently classified as critical and very critical in most areas of southern Somalia, due to poor food
access and high morbidity related to low health interventions. FSNAU further reports that the poor
rainfall performance during the mid-Gu season (April-June) heavily affected cereal production,
especially in the south, where access to food continues to deteriorate. The cost of the average daily
food consumption by Somali households has increased from 21 to 27 per cent since December 2010,
with peaks of 37 per cent in the south, compared to a year ago thus increasing the vulnerability of the
urban population. The number of people in need of humanitarian assistance increased from 2.4
million (which emerged from the post-Deyr assessment released January 2011) to 2.5 million reported
by FSNAU in May, following preliminary indications based on the Gu rains. Projections indicate that
there could be a further 20 per cent increase, following the post-Gu assessment which will be released
by FSNAU in August 2011. It is only during this assessment that the exact impact of the delayed
onset of the Gu rains on the livelihoods of the population will be known.

Food Security: In addition to the below normal rainfall affecting local food production, people’s
access to food is affected by the pipeline breaks and significant funding shortfall experienced by
WFP. The food agency was only able to reach 33 per cent of the food needs in its areas of operation
in May, reaching 61 per cent of the targeted beneficiaries with significant cuts and reductions in
rations. Extremely limited distributions of cereals, pulses and vegetable oil took place in May and the
situation is likely to continue for the next 12 months despite receipt of US $14.5 million from the
United States government and a total of 65,000 metric tons of food commodities. WFP is seeking
other contributions to cover the remaining associated costs which would improve the availability of
stocks on hand for distribution in the coming months. Despite challenges, food assistance was
delievered to 684,300 beneficiaries in May 2011.

As reported by OCHA Somalia, humanitarian response for Somalia in May included the following
interventions: 14

14 Somalia Humanitarian Overview, May 2011

Health: WHO distributed Emergency Health Kits to the main hospitals in Mogadishu to respond to
the Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD)/Cholera outbreak. The kits will assist 70,000 people for three
months. UNICEF and partners vaccinated 75,000 children under 5 years of age against measles,
17,000 children under 1 year of age against DPT, 108,000 women of child-bearing age against tetanus
and 76,500 children under five years of age received a dose of Vitamin A. In addition, WHO sent one
diarrhea kit targeting 100 patients was sent to Garowe in Puntland, and provided medication for
severe dehydration in Bay and Bakool regions.

Education: Across the seven regions of Puntland, education partners have supported teacher
incentives for 100 teachers (90 male, 10 female) working in 84 drought-affected schools in 28
districts, benefiting 4,460 children, 42 per cent being girls. Some 1,600 teachers, 344 of them female,
are also being supported with regular monthly teacher incentives by UNICEF, in emergency-affected
areas in Afgooye Corridor, Gedo, Bay, Galgaduud south Mudug and Middle/Lower Shabelle,
benefiting another estimated 60,000 pupils. Learning and teaching materials have been distributed to
over 90 schools in Diinsoor and Baidoa districts, Bay region, benefiting 19,000 students. Education
partners in Somalia have also constructed/rehabilitated 16 latrines in six schools in Karkar region,
Puntland, supporting 1,000 school children. At least eight water taps have been installed, one in each
of the eight schools in the same region. Water trucking benefited 34 schools in drought-affected areas,
in Marjeh and Togdheer regions of Somaliland, benefiting over 6,000 pupils, on who 30 per cent are

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Over 483,000 residents in Mogadishu benefitted from the
chlorination of 217 water sources and 58 water points by UNICEF, Oxfam and local partners. The
NGO NRC has provided sanitation facilities to 70,000 people in Mogadishu. NGO COOOPI
distributed water vouchers to about 6600 people in Gaalkacyo, Mudug region.

Nutrition: 290,000 IDPs and drought-affected people are receiving maternal and child health care and
nutrition supplies though UNICEF and its partners. Humanitarian partners also screened 14,200
children in six districts in Puntland, while local NGO Direct Aid provided meals to 1,568 chidlren
below 5 and 125 lactating mothers in Lower Shabelle and Banadir district.

Shelter and Non-Food Items (NFIs): The national NGO BDG distributed NFI kits including mosquito
nets and plastic sheetsto over 12,000 people in Hodan and Wadajir districts in Mogadishu, while NRC
distributed NFI kits to another 75,600 IDPs in Mogadishu.


Rainfall performance in Uganda has continued to be consistent with the March to May weather
forecast, with the southern half receiving average to above average rainfall, with a peak in the rainfall
from late April-early May. The continuous torrential rains in Bugisu sub-region have however
resurrected fears of more landslides on the slopes of Mountain Elgon. The rains that started in late
April intensified last month and triggered landslides that buried a pupil of Bunanzu primary school in
Nasyefu village. The fears are more apparent among communities in Manafwa district in areas where
cracks have developed on the slopes.

In northern Uganda however, rainfall remains below average to average and coupled with the delayed
cropping season, concerns persist over the possibility of poor crop production and below-average
harvests in July, as majority of the crops are still in the vegetative stage. An IPC exercise was
conducted for Karamoja region on 18 May and analysis of the collected data is ongoing to verify the
conditions and number of affected people in the region.. Staple prices in Gulu have risen by 41%
since March 2011 and are 68% above April 2010 levels, with expectations of a deterioration until late
June when new stocks are expected in the market. Similar concerns have been raised for other parts in
northern Uganda where a likelihood of rainfall failure starting mid-June may result in below-average
crop production. Persistent poor rainfall performance in the West Nile is likely to result in below-
average production of food crops.

In Karamoja, the rains are reportedly well established and households are engaged in cropping
activities, with some families at the weeding stage. The rains will however remain below average
through June. The poor rains experienced in April however dampened prospects of a good harvest as
some families no longer have seeds to replace the damaged crops thus reducing their normal acreage.
FEWSNET however observes that the above-average harvests expected in July in the southern areas
may offset some of the concerns in the north.

The Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) outbreak is currently contained with no new outbreaks reported
since March. In the event that no new cases are reported, the FMD quarantine will most likely to be
lifted at the end of June, raising hopes for the reopening of ivestock markets in Amudat and
Nakipiripit.This will create more opportunity for income from livestock sales thus enabling
households to purchase other foods from the markets. FEWSNET reports that livelihoods in majority
of the Karamoja areas are likely to remain Stressed (IPC Phase 2) through September. Livestock from
Kenya that have been grazing in the Karamoja area are yet to return due to poor rains in their areas of
origin in Kenya.

I Coordination

The Regional Humanitarian Partnership Team (RHPT) at its monthly meeting held in May
brainstormed on the possibility of launching a regional appeal for the current drought. Humanitarian
partners are in favour of developing collective messaging on the situation and also will support
regional advocacy but seemed opposed to having a regional financial appeal. Funding appeals will
continue to be developed at country level.

At the request of ECHO, FAO within the framework of the FSNWG organized a consultative
meeting, on 11 May, in Nairobi to review the food security situation in the region in light of the
worsening drought. The technical consultative meeting focused on the worst-affected countries
(Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti) and recommended the integration of both short-term
interventions and long-term disaster reduction measures to help avert the cyclic nature of the drought
in affected countries. The meeting further observed that based on the current situation in other
countries in the region; there was an urgent need to consider the situation in Eritrea where there are
fears that the situation in the country could be critical. Participants at the meeting included ECHO,
Save the children.

In Ethiopia, the expanded Multi-Agency Coordination (MAC) forum met on 1 June 2011 to discuss
the response to date and current gaps in funding. The Government has assured humanitarian partners
that response planning will continue to be conducted on the basis of regional requests for assistance,
as partners await the presentation of the revised Humanitarian Requirements Document (HRD), with
updated beneficiary figures.

OCHA Kenya organized a one day Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan (EHRP) 2011+
workshop on 19 May 2011 in Nairobi, bringing together humanitarian actors, donors and government
counterparts to review the current humanitarian responses in Kenya given the operational challenges
and resource constraints, worsened by the prevailing drought in the region.

The Government of Kenya through the District Commissioner is leading a coordinated response to the
areas affected by conflict along the Kenya-Ethiopia border, with support from the Catholic Mission of
Todonyang, the Kenya Red Cross Society, Oxfam GB, Merlin and CCF. The International
Organisation for the Migration conducted an assessment in the area.

The United Nations inter-agency team dubbed “Security in Mobility (SIM)”, comprising
UNOCHA, FAO and IOM, undertook a joint mission to Moyale to assess the impact of the
drought on pastoralists. The team is looking at the possibility of designing longer-term inter-
sectoral responses for the humanitarian concerns in northern Kenya, which require an integrated
holistic approach that addresses human security issues, including livelihoods, education, water access,
markets and safety issues.

V. Funding

1.293 billion

requested (US$)

51 %


Against the approximately US$ 1.293billion in humanitarian
requirements identified by the governments and
humanitarian country teams in Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia and
Somalia, some $671 million in contributions has been
recorded to date, meaning emergency appeals throughout the region are funded at 51%.

The Djibouti Drought Appeal of $39 million is only 30% ($11 million) funded as at the end of May.

According to the Government of Ethiopia, approximately 70% of the total humanitarian requirements
identified for the year to date have been mobilized, with relief food assistance funded at 66%; health
and nutrition interventions at 84%; WASH at 55%; and Agriculture / Livestock interventions at 66%.
However, important food pipelines – including the TSF programme (25% funded) – are facing critical
shortfalls. Based on the current caseload of 3.2 million people, the relief food gap through the end of
2011 is currently some $108 million, with an additional $18 million required for Targeted
Supplementary Feeding (TSF). The funding gap in the non-food sectors stands at some $19 million at
present, including $5 million for health and nutrition; $8 million for WASH; $3.5 million for
agriculture / livestock; and $2.5 million for education. These figures are expected to increase based on
the new beneficiary caseloads and associated requirements included in the forthcoming revision of the
national Humanitarian Requirements Document (HRD).

To support the above-described response, the Humanitarian Response Fund (HRF) for Ethiopia has
committed some $22.4 million as of the end of May to projects implemented by ACF, Bread for the
Islamic Relief, Mercy Corps, Merlin, Oxfam GB, PCI, Save the Children UK, Save the Children US,
UNICEF, WFP, and World Vision in the agriculture / livestock, WASH (water trucking), nutrition,
non-food items (NFIs), protection and logistics sectors.

USAID/Food For Peace (FFP), meanwhile, has provided 175,760 NT of relief food assistance, valued
at approximately $125.3 million, to respond to humanitarian needs arising from late 2010 flooding
and the effects of the La Niña conditions in 2011, including drought, underperformance of the current
short cropping belg rains, and to meet refugee needs.15 USAID/OFDA has also provided more than
$9.8 million to support agriculture and food security, logistics and relief commodities, humanitarian
coordination and information management in Ethiopia, as well as nearly $1 million for emergency
drought and nutrition initiatives.

15 USAID, “East and Central Africa Region”, Fact Sheet #1, Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, May 23 2011

The Kenya Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan (EHRP) is currently funded at 43%. OCHA
Kenya observes that the 54% reflected in the Financial Tracking System (FTS) includes carry-over
funds for projects designed in 2010. USAID/FFP has in 2011 provided more than 95,000 MT of Title
II and Emergency Food Security Program (EFSP) food assistance, valued at an estimated $116.7
million, through WFP to drought- affected populations in the country. The US Government has also
provided nearly $133 million to support drought-affected Kenyans and refugees residing in Kenya, of
which OFDA provided more that $4 million to support through agriculture and food security,
economic recovery and market systems, nutrition and WASH initiatives.
Funding shortages are affecting the Somali population in crisis. The humanitarian community
appealed for US$530 million to cover humanitarian needs in 2011. By the end of May, only 46 per
cent of the appeal has been funded. This is particularly concerning as the number of people in need is
expected to increase over the coming months and the humanitarian community is likely to revise the
appeal upwards during a mid-year review in June. The food sector has been particularly affected by
the funding shortage. WFP has been experiencing pipeline breaks and is currently only able to meet
33 per cent of actual food needs in its areas of operation, reaching 61 per cent of the targeted
beneficiaries with significant cuts and reductions in their rations.

All humanitarian partners including donors and recipient agencies are encouraged to inform FTS of
cash and in-kind contributions by sending an e-mail to:

VI. Contact

Gabriella Waaijman, Head of Office, OCHA Sub-regional office for Eastern Africa (SROEA),
Tel +254 20 762 2148/2166 (0); Mobile: + 254 732 600 012; Email:

Truphosa Anjichi-Kodumbe, Humanitarian Reporting Officer, OCHA SROEA, Nairobi,

Tel: +254 20 762 2076 (o) Mobile: +254 732 500 018/+254 722 839 182; Email:

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About perspectivesonafrica

Research and news about Africa
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